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By Sandra Gunning

Within the past due 19th century, the stereotype of the black male as sexual beast functioned for white supremacists as an externalized image of social chaos opposed to which all whites might unite for the aim of nationwide renewal. The emergence of this stereotype in American tradition and literature in the course of and after Reconstruction was once with regards to the expansion of white-on-black violence, as white lynch mobs acted in "defense" of white womanhood, the white relations, and white nationalism.

In Writing a crimson Record Sandra Gunning investigates American literary encounters with the stipulations, strategies, and effects of such violence in the course of the illustration of not only the black rapist stereotype, yet of alternative the most important stereotypes in mediating moments of white social quandary: "lascivious" black womanhood; avenging white masculinity; and passive white femininity. Gunning argues that those figures jointly symbolize the tangle of race and gender illustration rising from turn-of-the-century American literature. The booklet brings jointly Charles W. Chestnutt, Kate Chopin, Thomas Dixon, David Bryant Fulton, Pauline Hopkins, Mark Twain, and Ida B. Wells: recognized, notorious, or long-neglected figures who produced novels, essays, tales, and pamphlets within the unstable interval of the Nineties during the early 1900s, and who contributed to the continuous renegotiation and redefinition of the phrases and limits of a countrywide discussion on racial violence.

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